Yakutia, which has huge natural resources, transport corridors and big potential for the development of human capital, in many respects is becoming one of the key regions of the world. Significant positive changes in the Arctic are associated with industrial development. But at the same time, an important task is to find a balance in the question of “economy or ecology”. And first of all, this issue should be considered through the prism of preserving the living environment and economic management of the indigenous peoples of the North. The state policy of the Russian Federation and the Arctic regions of Russia fully responds to modern challenges and is aimed at sustainable development of the Arctic, an example of which is the development of the Arctic districts of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).